The Eight Limbs of Yoga

The Yoga Ethics or Eight Limbs of Yoga are a set of guidelines for living a meaningful and purposeful life, as outlined by the ancient Indian sage Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras. The Eight Limbs provide a comprehensive framework for practising yoga in all aspects of life, from physical postures to ethical behaviour to meditation and self-awareness. Here are the Eight Limbs of Yoga:

  • Yama: The first limb is concerned with ethical behaviour and how we interact with the world around us. The five yamas are Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (truthfulness), Asteya (non-stealing), Brahmacharya (continence), and Aparigraha (non-greed).
  • Niyama: The second limb focuses on personal observance and self-discipline. The five niyamas are: Saucha (cleanliness), Santosha (contentment), Tapas (austerity), Svadhyaya (self-study), and Ishvara Pranidhana (surrender to a higher power).
  • Asana: The third limb is concerned with physical postures, which help us to develop physical strength, flexibility, and balance. Asanas are practised to prepare the body for meditation and to promote overall health and well-being.
  • Pranayama: The fourth limb is concerned with breath control, which is practised to balance and regulate the flow of prana (life force energy) in the body.
  • Pratyahara: The fifth limb involves the withdrawal of the senses from external stimuli, in order to turn the focus inward and cultivate inner awareness.
  • Dharana: The sixth limb is concerned with concentration and focuses the mind on a single point or object, which helps to quiet the mind and promote mental clarity.
  • Dhyana: The seventh limb is concerned with meditation, which involves sustained focus and concentration on an object or idea in order to reach a state of pure consciousness.
  • Samadhi: The eighth and final limb is the ultimate goal of yoga, and refers to a state of union with the divine, in which the individual self merges with the universal consciousness.

Of all the Eight Limbs of Yoga we are going to explain better Yama and Niyama:


The yamas are a set of five ethical guidelines that emphasize restraint and self-control. They are:

  • Ahimsa (non-violence): This principle encourages practitioners to avoid causing harm or injury to others or to oneself, whether through physical, mental, or emotional means.
  • Satya (truthfulness): This principle emphasizes the importance of speaking truthfully and honestly in all situations, both to oneself and to others.
  • Asteya (non-stealing): This principle encourages practitioners to refrain from taking what does not belong to them, whether material possessions, time, or energy.
  • Brahmacharya (self-control): This principle emphasizes moderation in all aspects of life, including sexuality, food, and sensory experiences, in order to cultivate greater focus and clarity of mind.
  • Aparigraha (non-greed): This principle encourages practitioners to cultivate contentment and avoid excessive attachment to material possessions, status, or power.


The niyamas are a set of five personal practices that encourage self-reflection and self-improvement. They are:

  • Saucha (purity): This principle encourages practitioners to cultivate cleanliness and purity of body, mind, and environment.
  • Santosha (contentment): This principle emphasizes the importance of cultivating a sense of gratitude and contentment in all situations.
  • Tapas (discipline): This principle encourages practitioners to cultivate discipline and self-motivation in order to achieve their goals.
  • Svadhyaya (self-study): This principle encourages practitioners to engage in self-reflection and self-inquiry, in order to gain greater self-awareness and understanding.
  • Ishvara pranidhana (surrender to a higher power): This principle encourages practitioners to cultivate a sense of surrender to a higher power or greater purpose, and to act in alignment with this purpose in all aspects of life.

By following these ethical principles, yoga practitioners can cultivate greater mindfulness, compassion, and self-awareness, and live a more fulfilling and harmonious life.

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